Tag Archives: interesting

Protein Symphony!

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music_by_dante_mk  Amazing artwork by:(http://browse.deviantart.com/art/music-106660536)

One good thing about music, when it hits you, you feel no pain.

-Bob Marley

This is one of my most favourite quotes. Music is an important part of my life. Even though I may not be musically talented per say (does singing in the shower count?), I enjoy listening to it daily as it helps me forget about life’s problems instantly. For those few minutes I’m in a zone where nothing else matters except how the music makes me feel in that moment; be it happy, sad, calm you name it, music can take you on an emotional roller-coaster.

So when I read an article talking about assigning musical notes to each amino acid in different proteins to create a melody I was beyond thrilled!

This has been an ongoing project by Rie Takahashi and Jeffrey Miller, colleagues at the University of California at Los Angeles, in which their aim is to “musicalise” the amino acid sequences in various proteins. Although this idea has been thought of before, Takahashi and Miller have found a way to make the tunes richer and more rhythmic compared to earlier efforts that resulted in jumpy notes.

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Rie Takahashi

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Jeffrey H. Miller

So, how is this done?

It’s really simple actually. Each of the 20 amino acids is allocated a specific musical note, be it middle C or D sharp, until each one has their own note. Then a protein is chosen and a musical score is made just by transcribing the amino acids of the protein’s sequence into musical notes.

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Remember I told you that previous attempts at making “musical proteins” failed because of notes “jumpy notes”? This was because sometimes notes would leap 20 notes at a time, thus making it hard/ unmelodious to the ear. But Takahashi and Miller overcame this obstacle by giving each amino acid not just one note but three notes, also called a triad chord. These triad chords were played successively and the harmonies were easier on the ears and just overall nicer to listen to. They did cheat a little bit though because they made minor changes to the chords already used in the first 13 amino acids and then gave them to the remaining 7, but it was all to make the highest tunes more favourable.

They also discovered a way to put in timings to each triad so rhythm could be introduced into the music.  By using the changes in the codon (triplets of DNA bases in the gene) frequencies, they allotted time values to the chords for each of the amino acids in the protein sequence.  Since an amino acid can have up to 4 different codons, the more common the codon is in the DNA, the longer the time value it has. That means the longest note in the melody would have a semibreve enduring 4 beats! Cool right?

protein music

I’m sure you just want to hear what it sounds like by now, so listen here!! On their website, they have numerous other creations here. Even though it’s not Beethoven, I still think it’s an ingenious idea and I’m excited to see and hear what becomes of this as Takahashi would like to add other instruments to the protein music as well!

Other vids can be found on Youtube as well showing how others convert each amino acid sequence of different proteins into music 🙂


Article Reference:  Coghlan, Andy. 2007. “Music made to measure from nature’s proteins” Accessed April 6, 2013. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn11775-music-made-to-measure-from-natures-proteins.html

References:

http://www.mimg.ucla.edu/faculty/miller_jh/gene2music/home.html

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn11775-music-made-to-measure-from-natures-proteins.html

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kIZ_mMC9OqY

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The Sound of Glycolysis!

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Do you remember the musical “The Sound of Music”? I was really young the first time I watched it and I remember thinking “Wow, this movie is really…long.” I watched it again a few months back and absolutely loved it! Not only were the characters loveable but the songs they sang such as “The Sound of Music” and “My favourite things” were catchy and melodious. So you could imagine how excited I felt when I found this vid on YouTube that sang the steps of glycolysis in the same tune that Maria and the children sang “Do-Re-Mi”. Take a look!

 

 

Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose into pyruvate and it occurs in the cytosol of the cell. The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy compounds ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).

There are 10 enzyme reactions in total and two phases, the energy investment phase and the energy generation phase. In the energy investment phase, there are 2 irreversible reactions and 3 reversible, while in the energy generation phase there is only 1 irreversible and 4 reversible enzyme reactions.

Here is a pic I found that may help you remember the structures if you learn better with food in mind! 🙂

Glycolysis_before_lunch_by_llifi_kei

Photo Credit (http://llifi-kei.deviantart.com/art/Glycolysis-before-lunch-101607430)

The first time I found this vid was when I was learning glycolysis for my CAPE examinations and now it can still help me with my university studies as well! When learning the song, I found myself swaying from side to side and closing my eyes while singing (I was really into it XD). It really was a life saver for me because I always used to have trouble learning the steps of any chemical process if there were more than 5 steps involved lol. I have terrible memory. I’ve come to realize that my love for music can aid in my school work, I mean, if I can remember all the lyrics to Rihanna’s “Pour it Up” then why can’t I learn these steps in the same way right?

The video layout is creative with colourful drawings and diagrams plus the singer, Jenny Scoville Walsh, had a lovely voice that complemented the song very well. The steps were all in the correct order and the intro to the video explained very well some of the steps in the process of digestion.

The only things that I wish the video included in the song were the enzymes associated with each step of the breakdown of glucose for example, glucose >glucose 6-phosphate is catalyzed by the enzyme Hexokinase. I also would’ve liked that the step in which dihydroxyacetone phosphate is quickly converted to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate would’ve been musically added to the song instead of just being put into brackets in the video. Other than that, the video is very well made and I recommend that you share it with others who would like a fun and easy way to remember the steps in glycolysis. Who knows, you might find yourself rocking out to the song just like this:

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Have a safe and happy Easter!

References:

http://llifi-kei.deviantart.com/art/Glycolysis-before-lunch-101607430

http://www.cnikky.com/carrie-underwood-will-star-in-the-re-make-of-the-sound-of-music/

Did You Know…?

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Now that we are onto the topic of amino acids and proteins in my biochemistry course, I found it only appropriate to share some interesting facts about protein that I discovered . I’m sure at least one will interest you!

  • Proteins can have really weird names. For example, the protein Pikachurin is a retinal protein that was named after a Pokémon character Pikachu and the protein Sonic Hedgehog was named after Sonic the Hedgehog. There is also a blue protein that is named Ranasmurfin, after the Smurfs.

pikachu2 images images (1)

  • Protein is found in each of the trillions of cells in the human body. Life would not be possible without proteins. Water is the only other substance which is as abundant in the body. Approximately 18-20% of the body is protein by weight.

Inside Outside Puzzle Human Body inside

  • In 2010, 20-year-old athlete Ben Pearson tried to increase his protein intake to boost muscle development. However, no one knew he had a rare genetic disorder that prevented his body from breaking down protein.

AthlteThe increased protein intake increased ammonia levels in his blood that caused brain swelling and death. (Read more of his story here: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/w_DietAndFitness/high-protein-diet-linked-hockey-players-death/story?id=11815908)

  • Hair is made up of a protein called keratin, which forms a helical shape. This protein has sulfur bonds, and the more sulfur links it has, the curlier a person’s hair will be. I guess my hair has A LOT of sulfur links!curly_by_jessicaxyl-d4q8gau
  • One of the smallest countries in the world, Luxembourg, is per capita the biggest meat eater. Luxembourgers eat on average about 300 pounds of meat annually per person. The U.S. comes in second with about 276 pounds of meat—mostly beef—per year. Austria is third with about 267 pounds of animal protein per person.

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  • Cow used to be the global leader in meat eaten. The pig is now the most popular.

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  • Without a protein called Albumin, the entire human body would swell.

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  • Cataracts are caused by the denaturation of proteins in the lenses of the eyes.

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  • Insects are more nutritious than many other common forms of protein. For example, 100 grams of top sirloin beef contain 29 grams of protein and 21 grams of fat. However, 100 grams of grasshopper contain 20 grams of protein and just 6 grams of fat.

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  • A protein in semen acts on the female brain to prompt ovulation.

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  • The human body has about 100,000 different types of protein. The body needs protein to grow, heal, and carry about nearly every chemical reaction in the body.

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  • Protein deficiency can cause serious health problems. For example, children with a protein deficiency could develop a condition known as Kwashiorkor. The symptoms include a protruding belly, thin hair, overall weight loss, and discolored skin and hair. Left untreated, it can lead to stunted growth, mental impairments, and death

Kwashiorkor-child

  • Middle- aged and elderly people have more extensive body breakdown than a younger person, which means they need more protein. However, as people enter middle age, hydrochloric acid, which helps digest protein in the stomach, drops to half its regular level. Because protein is crucial in cell regeneration, some researchers suggest that most of aging is due to this drop alone.

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  • Eating too much protein can be dangerous for the body. For example, high levels of protein can stress the livers and kidneys because they have to work extra hard to dismantle and dispose of the extra protein. Excess protein can result in weight gain.

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  • Proteins in the human body have many jobs. For example, a protein called rhodopsin in our eyes helps us see light. Hemoglobin in red cells carries oxygen from the lungs to the body’s cells and takes away their harmful waste product, carbon dioxide. A series of chemical reactions involving proteins makes the blood clot. Additionally, proteins give the body structure, help regulate body processes, defend against disease, maintain the body’s internal environment, and give us energy

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  • While human meat is a good source of high-quality protein, cannibalism was not historically motivated by diet or starvation. Rather it was a symbolic gesture, usually as a way to commune with the gods.

Cannibal-Stories-Human-Cannibalism-Caribs

Well, if you didn’t know any of these things..

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References:

Information:http://facts.randomhistory.com/protein-facts.html

Pictures:

http://www.geocaching.com/seek/cache_details.aspx?guid=284daf6f-7755-44a2-b233-8419294a66fe

http://magazine.benettiyachts.it/2010/03/the-smurfs/

http://lazearscience.blogspot.com/2007/12/food-protein.html

http://www.unchainedfitness.com/blog/how-often-should-an-athlete-train

http://jessicaxyl.deviantart.com/art/Curly-285929094

http://www.wort.lu/en/view/luxembourg-tops-world-meat-eater-ranking-4fa11824e4b00f68fa034f72

http://www.dailyspeculations.com/wordpress/?m=200901

http://www.kdweye.com/for-patients/disease-information/cataracts-and-intraoclar-lenses

http://www.livestrong.com/article/552388-how-nutritious-are-insects/

http://www.ppi-wageningen.org/edible-insects-high-nutrients/

http://www.irbbarcelona.org/index.php/en/news/irb-news/scientific/scientists-reveal-the-key-mechanisms-for-affinity-between-transient-binding-proteins

http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2013/01/30/gut-microbes-kwashiorkor-malnutrition/

http://www.carnipure-for-you.com/why_is_it_difficult_for_elderly_people_to_get_sufficient_l_carnitine.html

http://blog.friendseat.com/do-you-eat-too-much-protein-infographic/

http://www.amazing-trinidad-vacations.com/cannibal-stories.html

http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/structlife/chapter1.html

http://www.justjenniferblog.com/2012/10/did-you-know-get-your-lattelove-on.html